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Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Synonyms: Myrobalanus bellirica Gaertn.

Group: Dicot
Family: Combretaceae - Indian Almond family
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Bahera, Boira.

Tribal Name: Pangathe (Rakhaing), Sacheng (Murong), Bora-gach (Chakma), Bol-suiri (Garo), Ka Sing Ba, Cha Ching Ti, Soi Sing Si,Thaisingthe (Marma), Boya gula (Tanchangya).

English Name: Belaric myrobalan.

Description of the Plant:

A large tree. Bark bluish-grey, fissured. Leaves simple, ovate-obovate or broadly elliptic, obtuse of emarginated at apex. Flowers cream coloured, in axillary spikes. Drupes globose, obscurely 5-angled, brown-tomentose. Occasional in hilly area.

Chemical Constituents:

Fruits contain tannins, which is composed of gallotannic and ellagitannic acids, phyllemblin, ß-sitosterol, mannitol, sugars, hydrocarbons, tirtriacontanone, tetratriacontane, a hexahydroxy diphenic acid ester, ditriacontanol, resins and a greenish yellow oil containing palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Presence of three glycosidal compounds, a saponin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate, chebulagic acid, mannitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, rhamnose, a new cardenolides type cardiac glycoside (bellericanin) have also been reported in fruits. Heartwood and bark contain ellagic acid; bark also contains substantial amount of oxalic acid.

Seed coat contains gallic acid. The triterpenoids arjungenin, tomentosic acid, belleric acid, bellericagenin, bellericagenin A, bellericagenin B, bellericoside, bellericaside A, bellericaside B and arjunglucoside l have also been isolated from this plant (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Mode of Uses:

  • Fruits are used in menstrual disorder. Seed oil is used in rheumatism (Chakma).
  • Dried fruit chewed for treat sore throat and cough until cured (Marma).
  • Fruit is taken directly twice daily until cured to treat cough and diarrhoea. (Rakhaing).
  • Decoction of the green fruit is used for cough (Tanchangya).

Distribution:

Forests of Gazipur, Sherpur, Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazar, Tangail and planted elsewhere.

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