Ervatamia coronaria (L.) Stapf
Tabernaemontana coronaria (L.) Willd
Ervatamia divaricata (L.) Burkill
Nerium coronarium Jacq.
Nerium divaricatum L.
Tabernaemontana coronaria (Jacq.) Willd.
Family: Apocynaceae - Dogbane family
Growth Habit: Shrub
Bangla/Vernacular Name: Tagar, Dudhphul
Tribal Name: Aekachop (Khumi), Oiakte (Bawm), Salu (Marma), Boyomaa baajaa (Marma)
English Name: Wax flower
A dichotomously branched bushy shrub with milky latex. Leaves opposite, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers white, in solitary or twin 1-8 flowered cymes at the bifurcations of the branches. Fruits 2 divaricate follicles, narrowed in to a slender curved beak, bright red within.
Root contains a large number of indole alkaloids including coronaridine (cytotoxic), coronaridine hydroxyindolenine, voacangine, vocangine hydroxyindolenine heyneanine, voacristine, 3-oxocoronaridine, 3-oxovoacangine, voacristine hydroxyindolenine, 19S-heyneamine hydroxyindolenine and a number of triterpenoides and resins. Leaves contain novel indole alkaloids of the aspidosperma-type, viz., voafinidine (C20H28N2O2) and voalenine in minor amounts and a new 2-acylindole alkaloid, ervaticine.
Coronaridine, voacristine, tabernaemontanine, dregamine; a-amyrin, lupeol, ß-sitosterol, voacangine and voaphylline have also been isolated from leaves. Bark contains the triterpenes, a-amyrin and its acetate, lupeol and its acetate, and ß-sitosterol. Stem bark contains coronaridine, voacangine, ibogamine and isovoacangine. A new bis-indole alkaloide, 19, 20-dihydroervatanine, together with coronaridine, heynearine, voacristine, voacamine, descarbo-methoxyvoacamine and five phenolic acids, vanillic, genisic, syringic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and salicylic acid have been isolated from the stems.
Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult.
Flowers contains kaempferol. Presence of phenolics like coniferyl and sinaphyl alcohols and sterols like campesterol and stigmasterol and irridoids, loganin, olivacine, tabernaemontanine, jecubine and janetine, tryptophan and tryptamine have also been reported in this plant (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 90 & 93; Ghani, 2003).
Roots are emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, tonic, purgative, astringent to the bowels and tonic to the brains, liver and spleen; useful in paralysis and strangury; lessens pain in the limbs and the joints. The roots when chewed relieve toothache. Wood is refrigerant.
Throughout Bangladesh in forests and village thickets.
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