Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
Eugenia jambolana Lam.
Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC.
Caryophyllus jambos Stokes
Myrtus cumini L.
Family: Myrtaceae - Myrtle family
Growth Habit: Tree
Bangla/Vernacular Name: Jam, Kalojam, Kalajam.
Tribal Name: Jum (Chakma), Pramoii (Khumi), Lenmui (Bawm), Chaku (Mogh), Sabri (Mogh), Mojibaong (Marma), Musbrisi (Marma), Sochi Tobri (Marma).
English Name: Black Plum, Jambolan, Java Plum, Indian black-berry.
A large tree. Leaves simple, elliptic, ovate-lanceate, acuminate at apex. Flowers white in paniculate cymes. Fruit a berry, variable in size and shape, black, juicy and shining when thoroughly ripe, pulp deep purple. Flowering time: April-May; Fruiting time: July-August.
Leaves contain essential oil containing a-terpinene, ß-pinene, ß-phellandrene, terpinolene, myrcene, limonene, cadinene and methyl salicylate. They also contain sitosterol, betulinic and maslinic acids, paraffins, n-alkanes, heptacosane, nonacosane, triacontane, hentriacontane and aliphatic alcohols and oxalic, citric and glycolic acids, glucose and fructose. Flowers contain triterpenoids, ellagic acid and the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and isoquercitrin; acetyl olenolic acid, oleanolic acid and crotegolic acid. Flowers also contain myricetin-3-L-arabinoside, dihydromyricetin, quercetin-3-D-galactoside. Fruit pulp contains proteins, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins A, C, thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid and its conjugates, minerals and a number of anthocyanins.
Seeds contain a pale yellow essential oil, tannins, a glycoside, jambolin, flavonoids, phenolic constituents, gallic, ellagic, caffeic, ferulic and hexahydroxydiphenic acids and ellagitannins. Stem bark contains kaempferol, kaempferol glucoside, quercetin, ß-sitosterol glucoside, betulinic aid, friedelin, eugenin and tannins, resins, starch and proteins. Effective hypoglycemic principles have been isolated from 95% alcoholic extract of dried seeds. An alkaloid, jambosine, has also been reported in this plant (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).
Planted all over Bangladesh.
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