Home >> Ethnobotany Plants: Part-P >> Piper nigrum L.

Piper nigrum L.

Group: Dicot
Family: Piperaceae - Pepper family
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Climber

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Golmarich, Kalimarich.

Tribal Name: Gol morich (Chakma).

English Name: Black Pepper, Decorticated Pepper, Common Pepper.

Description of the Plant:

A stout climbing shrub. Leaves broadly ovate, entire, rounded at base, shortly acuminate at apex. Flowers pale yellow in spikes. Berries ovoid-globose.

Chemical Constituents:

Major constituents of the fruits are alkaloids. They contain up to 9% alkaloids, which include chavicine, ß-methyl pyrroline, piperine, piperidine, depentine and piperovatine. They also contain a balsamic essential oil with ß-bisabolene, camphene, ß-caryophyllene and many other terpenes and sesquiterpenes, a pungent resin, chavicin, piperetine, lignin, gum piperyline, piperole A and B, piperanine monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, starch and fat. Volatile components of the essential oil are mainly mono-and sesquiterpenes, such as pinenes, sabinene, limonene, caryophyllene and myrcene. Pepper also contains oleoresin, gum, aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and fatty oil.

The fruits have also been reported to contain safrole and tannic acid, in addition to other volatile and non-volatile constituents (Ghani, 2003). Sesquisabinene piperine, hentriacontan-16-one, hentriacontane and ß-sitosterol have been isolated from stems. A new amide - pipercide has been isolated from fruits (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1993).

Piper nigrum L.

Piper nigrum L.

Mode of Uses:

The leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum with powder prepared from the fruits of Piper nigrum is applied to affected areas for the treatment of tumours by the Chakma. Fruits of Piper nigrum with 13 other plants (see Allium sativum) are used to make pills to be taken thrice daily before food for the treatment of abdominal tumours by the Tripura.


Cultivated in Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet. Sold in everywhere in the country.

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