Home >> Ethnobotany Plants: Part-P >> Piper betel L.

Piper betel L.

Group: Dicot
Family: Piperaceae - Pepper family
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Vine

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Pan, Tambuli.

Tribal Name: Pan (Rakhaing), Mra (Khumi), Pandongna (Bawm).

English Name: Betel, Betel-leaf, Betel vine.

Description of the Plant:

Small trees, shrubs, subshrubs, or rarely herbs, erect or reclining, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves alternate, pubescent. Leaf blade conspicuously pinnately veined, lateral veins ascending-arching. Spikes opposite leaves, ascending-arching, densely flowered, distally drooping. Flowers sessile, borne on surface of rachis; floral bracts fringed with whitish hairs. Fruits sessile, oblong. Cultivated in marginal land.

Chemical Constituents:

Leaves contain up to 1% of an essential oil with burning taste, composed of cadinene, chavicol, chavibetol and cineole. They also contain an alkaloid, arakene, tannins, starch, sugars and diastases. In addition, they contain ß-carotene and a-tocopherol. Roots contain diosgenin and ß-sitosterol (Ghani, 2003).

Piper betel L.

Piper betel L.

Mode of Uses:

  • Extract prepared from leaf. This extract mixed with seed powder of (Tamarindis indica&Piper niagrum) and salt. This mixture is taken three tea spoonfuls twice daily until cured for the treatment of fever (Rakhaing).
  • Leaves are taken for the remedy of flatulence and used to treat indigestion (Khumi).
  • Leaf is taken to treat fever (Bawm).


Cultivated all over the country.

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