Synonyms: Ocimum sanctum L.
Family: Lamiaceae - Mint family
Growth Habit: Forb/herb
Bangla/Vernacular Name: Tulsi.
Tribal Name: Nung Na, Nung Gri (Marma), Song-herma (Murang), Tulshi (Rakhaing), Tulosi, Ramal (Tanchangya), Tulshi, Mida phular gaas (Tripura).
English Name: Sacred Basil, Holy Basil.
A much-branched aromatic herb, woody at the base; branches subquadrangular. Leaves elliptic-oblong, obtuse or acute, entire or serrate, pubescent on both sides.Flowers in racemes in close whorls; corolla 4 mm long, purplish.Nutlets broadly ellipsoid, yellow with small black markings.
The plant contains alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, triterpene, saponins and citric, tartaric, ursolic and malic acids. Seeds contain a fixed oil composed of palmitic, stearic, linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids. Stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, and triacontanol ferulate have been isolated from stem bark. Leaves yield a bright yellow essential oil containing methyl eugenol, isoeugenol, eugenol acetate, ß-elemene, a-guaine, carvacrol, cineol, linalool, phenols. (Ghani, 2003). Eugenol (major constituent), its methyl ether, nerol, caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, decylaldehyde, ?-selinene, ß-pinene, camphene and a-pinene have also been identified in essential oil (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1993).
Cultivated throughout the Country.
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