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Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi

Synonyms:
Cytisus pinnatus L.
Derris indica (Lam.) Bennet
Galedupa indica Lam.
Galedupa pinnata (L.) Taub.
Pongamia glabra Vent.
Pongamia mitis Kurz
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

Group: Dicot
Family: Fabaceae - Pea family
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Dahur Karanja, Karanija, Kelenga, Dahur, Kanji, Pitagola, Koja, Karach (Sylhet), Karanja (Sunderban), Keron, Kerong (Chittagong).

Tribal Name: Mauprun (Marma).

English Name: Indian Beech, Poonga oil.

Description of the Plant:

A Moderat-sized tree. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets ovate, entire, acuminate. Flowers pale pink, in axillary racemes. Pods obliquely oblong, one seeded. Occasional in marginal land.

Chemical Constituents:

Leaves contain furanoflavone-3'-methoxypongapin in addition to karanjin, kanjone and its two isomers 7-methoxyfurano-(4'', 5'',6,5)- flavone and 8-methoxyfurano-(4'',5''-6,7)-flavone. Bark contains a hydroxychalcone, pongapinone A, which is useful for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Stem bark also contain chromenoflavone, pongachromene, glabra-I, glabra-II, kuranjin, pongapin, kanugin and de-methoxykanugin. Root bark contains a large number of the flavonoid compounds, ponganones, four furoflavones, keranjin, pongapin, pinnatin and gamatin and tetra-methoxyfisetin. Flowers contain new OH-furanoflavone, pongaglabol, aurantiamide acetate, 4 known furano flavones, ß-sitosterol and kaempferol.

Seeds contain a bitter fatty oil, crystalline substances, ß-diketone, karanjin, pongamol, glabrin, pongapin, lanceolatin-B, kanjone, isopongaflavone and pongapine and also traces of essential oil. Seed oil contains di-methylchromenoflavanone, isolonchocarpin and demethoxy kanugin; oil from immature seed yields new OH-furanoflavone and pongol. Heartwood contains pongachalcone, glabrachromen, de-methoxykanugin, kanugin, pongaglabrone, ß-sitosterol and pongachromene (Asolkar et al., 1992; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990 & 93; Ghani, 2003).

Mode of Uses:

Leaf boils into water and taken bath by this water for the treatment of itches (Marma).

A poultice of the leaves is applied to ulcers infested with worms. A decoction of the leaves is used for medicated baths and fomentation in cases of rheumatic pains; paste is useful in whitlow. Seeds possess hypotensive properties and produces uterine contractions. Powdered seed is valued as a febrifuge and tonic; used in bronchitis and whooping cough; in the forms of paste used for leprous sores, skin diseases and painful rheumatic joints, also as fish poison.

Distribution:

Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazar, Sylhet, Sundarbans, usually growing by the side of rivers, canals, streams and ditches.

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