Bassia latifolia Roxb.
Madhuca latifolia (Roxb.) J.F. Macbr.
Family: Sapotaceae - Sapodilla family
Growth Habit: Tree
Bangla/Vernacular Name: Mahua, Maul, Moa
Tribal Name: Unn-rain(Murang), Matkom (Santal)
English Name: Butter Tree, Mahua Tree, Monkey face tree
A large, much branched, deciduous tree, leaves oblong-shaped, rigid, clustered at the end of branches, exuding a milky sap when broken. Young leaves pinkish, flowers cream corollas fleshy, juicy, clustered at the end of branches. Fruit ovoid, fleshy, greenish, seed large.
Leaves contain ß-sitosterol-ß-D-glucoside, stigmasterol, n-hexacosanol and 3ß-caproxyolean-12-en-28-ol, ß-carotene, n-octacosanol, sitosterol, its ß-D-glucoside, stigmasterol, 3ß-palmitoxyolean-12-en-28-ol, oleanolic acid, quercetin, erythrodiol, palmitic acid, myricetin and its 3-O-L-rhamnoside (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1993). Leaves also contain a glycosidic saponin, protobassic acid and traces of an alkaloid. Flowers are a good source of sugars, calcium phophorus and protein.
They contain a good quantity of sugar, enzymes, yeast and albuminoids. Seeds contain 43.3% fat, 16.9% protein, 51.5% oil and a saponin, a sapogenin and bassic acid. Bark contains tannins and saponins and sterols. ß-amyrin, ß-amyrin acetate, ß-amyrin cinnamate, ß-amyrin decanoate, ß-amyrinone, betulinic acid, friedelin, hederagenin, isoarborinol, ursolic acid, a-spinasterol and a-spinasterol-ß-D-glucoside have been isolated from the bark and timber (Ghani, 2003).
Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel.
Fleshy seed is edible. Flowers are used in cooking as additive in curry and boiled rice for flavor. Flowers and fruits are also used inpreparingtraditional beer.
Dinajpur, usually planted by Santals and Barmans. Also planted elsewhere in the country.
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