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Limonia acidissima L.

Feronia elephantum Correa
Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle
Schinus limonia L.

Group: Dicot
Family: Rutaceae - Rue family
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Kait, Kadbel.

Tribal Name: Angklu (Khumi), Ching- por-ui (Murang).

English Name: Curd Fruit, Elephant Apple, Monkey Fruit, Wood Apple.

Description of the Plant:

A medium-sized tree with straight sharp strong spines. Leaves imparipinnate, smelling of aniseed; petiole and rachis flat, often narrowly winged; leaflets opposite, cuneate or obovate. Flowers small, dull red in lateral or terminal panicles. Fruits a berry, globose, hard, grey, rough; seeds numerous, embedded in fleshy pulp.

Chemical Constituents:

Fruit pulp contains large quantity of citric acid and other fruit acids, mucilage and minerals. Leaves contain stigmasterol, psoralen, bergapten, orientin, vitedin, saponarin, tannins and an essential oil. Alkaloids, coumarins, fatty acids and sterols have been detected in the pericarp. It also contains umbelliferone, dictamnine, xanthotoxol, scoparone, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, iso-imperatorin and marmin. Leaves contain stigmasterol, psoralen, bergapten, orientin, vitexin and saponarin. Marmesin, feronolide and feronone have been isolated from the bark.

Seeds contain fixed oil, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids. Roots contain feronialactone, geranyl umbelliferone, bargapten, osthol, isopimpinellin, marmesin and marmin. Ursolic acid and a new flavanone glycoside-7-O-methylporiol-4'-ß-xylopyranosyl-D-glucopyranoside (I) have been isolated from heartwood (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990 & 93).

Mode of Uses:

Root extract is taken for the treatment of typhoid fever (Khumi). Fruit is eaten in diarrhea (Murang).


Planted in Dhaka, Rajshahi and Sirajganj, occasionally in other Districts.

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