Family: Asteraceae - Aster family
Growth Habit: Herb
Bangla/Vernacular Name: Surjamukhi.
Tribal Name: Sath-paw (Murang).
English Name: Sunflower.
A tall annual, stems hispid or hirsute 1-2 m high. Leaf blades broadly ovate, smaller above, slightly acuminate at the apex, decidedly toothed; lower leaves cordate and upper leaves cuneate at the base. Ligules of the ray-florets 2.5-5 cm long, yellow, disk flat, 3-5 cm broad.
The edible fixed oil of seeds contains hydrocarbons, triterpenes, sterols, stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol, sterol glucosides and fatty acids- palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids. Unrefined oil contains carcinogenic hydrocarbons; seed flour contains phenolic substances and a glucoside of chlorogenic acid.
Flowers contain a large number of triterpenes alcohols, helianol being the major one, haemolytic glycosides, sterol, glycosides of triterpenes acids and a saponin glycoside, helianthoside. They also contain neoxanthin, pseudotaraxerene derivatives, heliantriol C & F, other heliantriols manilladiol and longispinogenin. Leaves contain depsides, ascorbic acid, citric acid and malic acid; shoots contain triterpene alcohols (Ghani, 2003).
Flowers are taken as anthelmintic and carminative (Murang).
Cultivated as ornamental plant and also as oil-seed crop.
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