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Euphorbia hirta L.

Synonyms:
Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.
Euphorbia pilulifera L.

Group: Dicot
Family: Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family
Duration: Annual
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Bara Keru, Ghaopata, Bara Dhudi, Dudhiya, Barakarni.

Tribal Name: Dudhia (Rakhaing), Dutta ludi (Chakma), Abu kantey akua (Tripura), Labeng-aaowi-asi (Khumi), Chinu (Marma), Noma (Marma), Sai Ma Mungye (Marma), Dudal (Garo).

English Name: Australian Asthma Herb, Pil-bearing Spurge, Snake-weed.

Description of the Plant:

Mostly monoecious herbs that are further characterized by the frequent occurrence of milky sap. Leaves are mostly alternate but may be opposite or whorled and they are simple, or compound. Flowers are unisexual and usually actinomorphic. Fruit is usually a capsular schizocarp. Common in side of the road.

Chemical Constituents:

The plant contains flavonoids, terpenoids, alkanes, phenolic acids, shikimic acid and choline. Aerial parts contain latex, a toxic glycoside, an alkaloid, choline, shikimic acid, l-inositol, sugars. It also contains tannins of the pyrogallol group and flavonoids, quercetin, quercitol, taraxerol, leucocyanindin, cyanidol, ß-amyrin, friedelin, triacontane, l-hexacosanol, methtyl nacyclo-artenol, tenol, cycloartenol and ß-sitosterol, euphorbol, hexacosonate, ß-amyrin acetate, tinyatoxin, two derivatives of deoxyphorbol actetate and ingenol triacetate.

Stems have been reported to contain phorbol esters, hentriacontane, myricyl alcohol, triterpenes, sterols and flowers contain gallic acid. Roots contain ingenol triacetate, two derivatives of deoxyphorbol acetate and taraxerone (Ghani, 2003). The plant also contains leucocyanidol, camphol, quercitrin and quercitol derivatives containing rhamnose and chlorophenolic acid (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Euphorbia hirta L.

Euphorbia hirta L.

Mode of Uses:

  • Paste prepared from whole plant and is used to plaster the fractured area. Extract of whole plant is taken twice daily as patient can until cured to treat diarrhoea (Rakhaing).
  • A root extract is taken twice daily for 3-4 days and the leaves are eaten as a galactogogue (Chakma).
  • Pills prepared from whole plant of Euphorbia hirta and the fruits of Piper longum are taken as a galactogogue (Tripura).
  • Latex of the plant is rubbed on fissured lips to treat the lip sore (Khumi).
  • Extract prepared from leaf is taken as patient can untill cured to treat dysentry (Marma).
  • The crushed plant is applied as poultice to abscesses and inflamed glands. Latex of the plant is rubbed on fissured lips by the Marma in Chittagong Hill Tracts.

Distribution:

Throughout Bangladesh in fallow lands.

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