Home >> Plants Profile: Part-C >> Capsicum frutescence L.

Capsicum frutescence L.

Synonyms: Capsicum minimum Blanco, Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum, Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescens (L.) Kuntze

Duration: Annual
Family: Solanaceae - Potato family
Group: Dicot
Growth Habit: Shrub

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Lanka-marich, Marich.

Tribal Name: Sangring-pui (Khumi), Linkew (Murang).

English Name: Chillies, Bird Chilli, Goat Pepper.

Description of Plant:

A shrubley perennial plant. Leaves broadly ovate. Flowers axillary white or greenish white, usually 2 or more together. Calyx embracing the base of the fruit. Fruit ovoid to oblong, obtuse or acuminate, red when ripe.

Chemical Constituents:

Fruits contain an oleoresin which contains the pungent principles, capsaicin and dihydorcapsaicin as the major constituents. They also contain homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, nonanoic acid, vanillylamide, vitamin C and minerals. Nonivamide has also been isolated from the fruit oleoresin. Red fruits contain carotenoids and flavonoids. Leaves and seeds contain glycosides, sterols and small amounts of capsaicinoids.

The plant also contains sesquiterpene, capsidiol, phytoalexin and its derivatives. Seeds contain saponin, capsiciden and the alkaloids, solanine and solanidine, vanillylamine, phenylalanine, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin have been identified in the fruits (Ghani, 2003).

Mode of Uses:

  • Powder of the dried fruit is made into paste with water and fried with hot rice is given in blood dysentery (Chakma).
  • Fruits are stomachic and stimulant; used as an adjunct to tonic and bitter medicines. Ripe and unripe fruits are used as spices (Khumi).
  • Green chilly is used to cook curry. It is also taken for the protection against malaria (Murang).

Distribution:

Cultivated throughout the country.

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