Synonyms: Capsicum minimum Blanco, Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum, Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescens (L.) Kuntze
Family: Solanaceae - Potato family
Growth Habit: Shrub
Bangla/Vernacular Name: Lanka-marich, Marich.
Tribal Name: Sangring-pui (Khumi), Linkew (Murang).
English Name: Chillies, Bird Chilli, Goat Pepper.
A shrubley perennial plant. Leaves broadly ovate. Flowers axillary white or greenish white, usually 2 or more together. Calyx embracing the base of the fruit. Fruit ovoid to oblong, obtuse or acuminate, red when ripe.
Fruits contain an oleoresin which contains the pungent principles, capsaicin and dihydorcapsaicin as the major constituents. They also contain homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, nonanoic acid, vanillylamide, vitamin C and minerals. Nonivamide has also been isolated from the fruit oleoresin. Red fruits contain carotenoids and flavonoids. Leaves and seeds contain glycosides, sterols and small amounts of capsaicinoids.
The plant also contains sesquiterpene, capsidiol, phytoalexin and its derivatives. Seeds contain saponin, capsiciden and the alkaloids, solanine and solanidine, vanillylamine, phenylalanine, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin have been identified in the fruits (Ghani, 2003).
Cultivated throughout the country.