Home >> Plants Profile: Part-A >> Allium sativum L.

Allium sativum L.

Duration: Perennial
Family: Liliaceae - Lily family
Group: Monocot
Growth Habit: Herb

Synonyms: Allium ophioscorodon Link

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Rasun (Bangla)

Tribal Name: Pronnow (Bawm), Mezyn-kaleywe (Khumi), Kasamphru (Rakhaing), Krachaaipru (Marma), Yao-Ui (Murang), Rowon (Tripura).

English Name: Garlic.

Description of the Plant:

Bulbs ovoid, compressed of many bulblets; tunics papery. Leaves flat, keeled beneath, sheaths covering lower half of stem. Stem solid. Inflorescence composed of 3 or more bulbils. Flowers if present aborting early.

Chemical Constituents:

Chief chemical constituent of Garlic is an essential oil which contains allyl propyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide, dimethyl disulphide and polysulphides. The sulphur compounds include allicin, alliin, allisatin I & II, sativis. It also contains anthocyanins, proteins, amino acids, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin, saponin-like substances, sterols (ß-sitosterol, cholesterol and campesterol) vitamins and polysaccharides. Four steroidal saponins, protoisoeruboside, eruboside-B, isoeruboside-B, sativioside C and two amino acids, adensine and tryptophan have been isolated from the fresh bulbs.

Vitamins A, B, C and a-tocopherol (vitamin E) have also been isolated from garlic. Garlic also contains prostaglandins A2 and F1 (Ghani, 2003). A biologically active compound - scordinin A1 has been isolated, which on alkaline hydrolysis yield a peptide, scormin and allylthiofructosiduronic acid. The bulb yields a mixture of polysaccharides containing pectic acid, a D-galactan and a fructan component which contained fructose (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Mode of Uses:

  • Bulb is taken for the treatment of abdominal flatulence (Bawm).
  • The whole plant of Momordica cochinchinensis, Cayratia trifolia and the bulb of Allium sativum crushed together and taken for heart disease (Chakma).
  • Bulb extract is taken for the treatment of abdominal flatulence. Paste prepared from bulb is applied to forehead for the treatment of headache (Khumi).
  • Paste prepared from bulb mixed with Black piper (Piper nigrum) is taken as patient can untill cured to treat gastritis (Marma).
  • Boiled garlic is taken to remove gas formation and stomach pain. Garlic is also taken with hot rice to treat high blood pressure (Murang).
  • Paste prepared from leaf mixed with cow or goat's milk, slightly heated in a steel plate and taken one tea spooneful twice daily for four-five days to treat cough in children. Paste prepared from leaf mixed with cow or goat's milk, slightly heated in a steel plate and taken one tea spoonful twice daily for four-five days to treat cough. Garlic is taken with hot rice to treat high blood pressure. Paste prepared from bulb is applied in the affected area for three month for the treatment of leprosy (Rakhaing).
  • Bulbs with 13 other plants (Acalypha indica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alpinia conchigera, Alstonia scholaris, Cuminum cyminum, Morinda angustifolia, Persicaria chinensis, Piper nigrum, Plumeria rubra, Stachytarpeta indica, Syzygium aromaticum, Thladiantha cordifolia, Tinospora crispa) are used to make pills to be taken thrice daily before food for the treatment of abdominal tumours (Tripura).

Distribution:

Cultivated in most of the districts of Bangladesh.


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