Family: Liliaceae - Lily family
Growth Habit: Herb
Synonyms: Allium ophioscorodon Link
Bangla/Vernacular Name: Rasun (Bangla)
Tribal Name: Pronnow (Bawm), Mezyn-kaleywe (Khumi), Kasamphru (Rakhaing), Krachaaipru (Marma), Yao-Ui (Murang), Rowon (Tripura).
English Name: Garlic.
Bulbs ovoid, compressed of many bulblets; tunics papery. Leaves flat, keeled beneath, sheaths covering lower half of stem. Stem solid. Inflorescence composed of 3 or more bulbils. Flowers if present aborting early.
Chief chemical constituent of Garlic is an essential oil which contains allyl propyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide, dimethyl disulphide and polysulphides. The sulphur compounds include allicin, alliin, allisatin I & II, sativis. It also contains anthocyanins, proteins, amino acids, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin, saponin-like substances, sterols (ß-sitosterol, cholesterol and campesterol) vitamins and polysaccharides. Four steroidal saponins, protoisoeruboside, eruboside-B, isoeruboside-B, sativioside C and two amino acids, adensine and tryptophan have been isolated from the fresh bulbs.
Vitamins A, B, C and a-tocopherol (vitamin E) have also been isolated from garlic. Garlic also contains prostaglandins A2 and F1 (Ghani, 2003). A biologically active compound - scordinin A1 has been isolated, which on alkaline hydrolysis yield a peptide, scormin and allylthiofructosiduronic acid. The bulb yields a mixture of polysaccharides containing pectic acid, a D-galactan and a fructan component which contained fructose (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).
Cultivated in most of the districts of Bangladesh.
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