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Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Belou marmelos (L.) A. Lyons
Crateva marmelos L.

Duration: Perennial
Family: Rutaceae - Rue family
Group: Dicot
Growth Habit: Tree

Bangla/Vernacular Name: Bel (Bengali)

Tribal Name: By-reyei (Khumi), War-e-si Apang (Marma), Sin-Pro-Ui (Murang), Bel (Rakhaing), Shephalbupaong (Tripura).

English Name: Wood Apple, Bel Fruit.

Description of the Plant:

A small or medium-sized deciduous tree, armed with many axillary, straight, strong, long spines. Leaves 3-foliolate, rarely 5-foliolate. Flowers greenish-white, in short axillary panicles. Fruit large, globose, with woody rind.

Aegle Marmelos (L.) Correa

Aegle Marmelos (L.) Correa. All Rights Reserved.

Chemical Constituents:

Fruit pulp contains carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins, essential oil, alcohols, ester, terpene, marmesin, scopoletin, tannins. It also contains alkaloids, O-methylhalfordinol and isopentylethalfordinol and an essential oil containing phellandrene and alloimperation and ß-sitoterol. Fruit contains psoralen, tamic acid, agelinol, furanocoumarin, marmelide. Ripe fruit contains xanthotoxol, scoparone, scopoletin, umbelliferone, marmesin, skimmin and ß-sitosterol glucoside. Marmin, ?-sitosterol and aegeline, identified as N-ß-hydroxy-p-methoxy phenylecinnamide have been isolated from leaves.

Leaves also contain alkaloids, marmelosins and agelenine, marmesin, rutin, polyphenolic compounds, sitosterols and essential oil containing of a & ß-phellandrene. Root contains xanthotoxin, 6,7-di-Ome-coumarin, scopoletin, tembamide, umbelliferone, marmesin, marmin, skimmianine, glycoside skimming. A phenolic alkaloid characterized as 1-phenyl-7-hydroxy tetrahydroquinazolin-4-one has been obtained from roots. Bark contains ß-sitoterol, umbelliferone, lupeol, coumarin and alkaloids, aegeline (=fagarine), skimmianine, marmesin, aurapten, marmin, and umbelliferone. Roots contain scoparone, scopoletin, marmesin (Ghani, 1998; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).

Mode of Uses:

Juice prepared from fruit is taken one glass instantly to treat vomiting. (Rakhaing)

Paste prepared from fresh fruit shell by rubbing with stone is applied to acne. Crushed fresh leaves are sniff up for the treatment of bleeding from nostril (epistaxis) and it is reported that the bleeding stopped within five minutes. Fresh leaves are mixed with green chili to prepare salad (Khumi).

Keep leaf under pillow for good sleep and paste of new leaf also taken by the Marma as remedy for Insomnia.

Unripe fruits is taken to relieve from diarrhoea and dysentery. Ripe fruits are digestive and used to treat constipation. Ripe fruits mixed with water used as beverage (Murang).

Juice prepared from fruit taken one cupful twice a day for five days by the Tripura as remedy for Stomach pain, dysentery with blood.


Cultivated throughout Bangladesh.

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